TOTAL WINE | ALL ABOUT WINE | WINE AND SPIRITS
The variety of wines produced in Spain is high, of high quality and with some wines that are only made in this part of the planet.
As you know, Spain is the place in the world with the largest number of vineyards and is the third largest producer of wines in the world,
A figure not in line with the consumption of WINE per inhabitant in which we are a little worse in that figure, surpassing countries such as the USA or China.
We can boast of winemaking in all provinces, there are different Types of Wine of which we leave you a small description.
TYPES OF WINES
The variety of wines is very wide and in order to know them all we have decided to divide them into three sections:
- Still Wine
- Special Wines
- Traditional terms
Still wines, which are wines that do not undergo a second alcoholic fermentation in the bottle, biological fermentation, or special elaboration methods,
can be differentiated by color, by their sugar content, by the concentration of carbon dioxide, the aging time.
aging in barrels or bottles, and its production method.
In the special wines we can find sparkling, fortified, sweet wines and other very interesting products.
Finally, in traditional terms, we find classic and modern wines, but all very peculiar, such as Palo Cortado or Vino Maestro.
Still wine classes according to color
Dry White Wine
White wine is made in the absence of skins, only the must is fermented, normally at a controlled temperature.
It can be made with white grapes and in some places, like in the area of the IGP Vinos de la Tierra de Bailén, red varieties are used.
At catatu we have made a selection of the best whites in Spain that you may like.
The rosé wine is fermented like the white only with the must but it has an initial maceration of several hours until it reaches the color that the winemaker has decided.
You can learn more about the making of rosé in this article that we have about making rosé wine.
Sweet Red Wine
Red wines are usually made with the skins and the must together, in some places called Madre, and thanks to the contact of skins, seeds and scrapes,
it contributes to the wine the amount of anthocyanins and tannins that achieve sufficient structure and achieve round wines.
We have many selections of red wines that you can find within the blog.
Claret is a special wine made with red grape skins and white grape must.
It is a peculiar wine that has very good quality in different areas of Spain.
You can find out here the differences between rosé and claret.
Sugar Content In Wine
The wines can be differentiated by the residual sugar content that the finished product has when bottling,
this nomenclature is for wines other than Sparkling wines, liqueur or overripe grape that have a different measurement system.
SUGAR CONTENT IN WINE
- Dry Wine
- Semi Dry Wine
- Semi Sweet Wine
- Sweet Wine
The explanation of total acidity is very simple. A wine with 5.7 grams of residual sugar can be dry if its tartaric acid content is 4.2 grams since
the difference between the two is 1.5 grams and therefore is less than 2 grams.
if a wine with 5.4 grams of residual sugar and a total acidity of 3.2 grams of tartaric acid,
it will be semi-dry because the difference is 2.2 grams and therefore greater than 2 grams.
This is applicable to all types of wines, except for sweet ones, as long as the sugar is greater than or equal to 45 grams, the wine will be Sweet.
CARBON DIOXIDE IN WINE
A wine can be differentiated by the amount of carbon dioxide (bubbles) in the bottle. This qualification is used for wines other than Sparkling.
It is called still wine when the amount of carbon is residual and the bubbles are imperceptible.
It is the one where you can notice the bubbles and the maximum pressure for these wines cannot exceed three atmospheres at 20 degrees.
Sparkling wine can be natural, that is, the carbonic comes from fermentation or it can be added to the product after the fermentation is finished to achieve that bubble.
In this case, the addition of carbon must appear on the product label.
WINE BARREL OR WINE BOTTLE AGING
Let us now see the possible classification of wines by mentions relating to barrel or bottle aging.
These mentions can only be applied to wine from the Denomination of Origin, Pagos and Vinos de la Tierra (PGI) depending on its aging period:
Minimum stay of 18 months of aging in oak wood container of 600 liters of maximum capacity,
this aging time can be done alone in oak or combined with stay in the bottle.
Minimum stay of 24 months of aging in oak wood container with a maximum capacity of 600 liters,
this aging time can be done only in oak or combined with stay in the bottle.
36 months, clearly oxidative character due to the action of light, oxygen, heat or all of these factors.
The term Barrel can be used when the wines are aged in barrels of any type of wood, not just oak.
In addition to the above indications, the following qualifications can be used in “still wines” with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO).
We must remember that the period of time is always the minimum and that the barrels must be oak and have a maximum capacity of 330 liters.
- AGING: The total aging period must be 24 months, the minimum time in oak barrels being 6 months.
- RESERVE: The total aging period must be 36 months, the minimum time in oak barrels being 12 months.
- GREAT RESERVE: The total aging period must be 60 months, the minimum time in oak barrels being 18 months.
WHITE WINE | PINK WINE
- AGING: The total aging period must be 18 months, the minimum time in oak barrels being 6 months.
- RESERVE: The total aging period must be 24 months, the minimum time in oak barrels being 6 months.
- GREAT RESERVE: The total aging period must be 48 months, the minimum time in oak barrels being 6 months.
QUALIFICATION OF THE WINES BY THEIR METHOD OF ELABORATION
CARBONIC ACID | MACERATION
This production method is a classic in La Rioja, although it is carried out in many areas of Spain, where very fresh, fruity red wines of a limited duration are made.
The production system is very peculiar since the whole grape grain is introduced into a tank and
The tank is filled with Carbon Dioxide to maintain an oxygen-free atmosphere, causing the alcoholic fermentation to take place inside the grain.
The way to control the moment in which the fermentation must be finished by the traditional method is by controlling
The fermentation progress of the must at the bottom of the tank, coming from the most crushed grapes in the tank.
A good example of carbonic maceration wine is found in the Heredad de Aduna wineries.
It is considered that a wine is of late harvest, when the grapes are harvested at very late dates than usual.
This type of wine is usually sweet wine, since due to the time it takes to pick the grape,
It dehydrates and the sugar concentration is so high that the yeasts cannot transform it into alcohol.
It is very complicated to harvest and control the grapes because as the harvest is delayed, more diseases associated with the vineyard can affect them.
The wines from the Selected Harvest can be of various Types Of Wine, Red Wine, White Wine, Rosé Wine, Sweet Wine …
but the important thing about these wines is that they are usually made from very careful grapes,
from special plots and with a vintage with a triple control, in the vine, at the time of harvest when picking the bunches and in the winery selecting grains.
Sparkling wines are wines that naturally contain Carbon Dioxide (bubbles) due to a second fermentation.
Here you can see how a sparkling wine is made. This fermentation must have a minimum period of 90 days.
These wines can be classified by their amount of residual sugar and here is an explanatory table.
|QUALIFICATIONS||GRAMS OF SUGAR RESIDUAL|
|Extra dry, (…), extra seco, (…)||12 – 17|
|Sec, (…), seco, (…)||17 – 32|
|Demi – sec, (…), semi seco (…)||32 – 50|
|Doux, (…), dulce, (…)||> 50|
Classification of sparkling wines by production method
This method of production is called traditional or Champenoise and consists of the second fermentation of the wine taking place inside the bottle.
Here we leave you what this traditional method consists of. Remember that in order to be a wine made by the traditional method,
Second fermentation wine must remain in the bottle with its lees for a minimum of 9 months and these must be removed by the disgorging method.
PREMIUM AND RESERVE:These terms can be used for sparkling wines with D.O.P. (including Cava).
Aging conditions are carried out at the discretion of the producer but for Cava it must be a minimum of 15 months.
GREAT RESERVE: This mention only applies to wines with D.O. Cava of the brut, extra brut or brut nature categories.
The minimum aging period of 30 months from printing to disgorging.
The charmat method is a way of making sparkling wines that is carried out in large tanks,
not individually per bottle and therefore it is faster but the quality of its bubbles is lower.
LIQUOR | LIQUOR WINE
These Wines are, in a usual way, Wines that usually come from wines aged under veil or oxidative aging wines,
To which wine ALCOHOL is added to reach a certain graduation and go from biological aging to oxidative aging.
Grape must can also be added to these biologically aged WINES to sweeten them, as in the case of Creams.
WINE AGING UNDER VEIL
These WINES are oenological rarities, treasures that only occur in small areas of ANDALUSIA, being the reference places:
These wines are made with two main grape varieties, PALOMINO (Jerez and Huelva) and Pedro Ximénez (Montilla) and
Some very minority such as Zalema (Huelva) and Verdejo (Rueda) and grapes are collected from special fields that are the ALBARIZAS.
The must of these grapes is completely fermented, and wine ALCOHOL is added to that resulting wine until the resulting mixture has an alcoholic strength of 15 degrees.
At that time, it is introduced into OAK BARRELS with an important part of air where a yeast arises between the wine and the air that creates a veil,
Which makes very DRY WINES and protects them from oxidation. The wines made in this way are Fino, Manzanilla, Condado Pálido and Rueda Pálido.
There is a type of CHAMOMILE, the Past Chamomile, which is a fine WINE but where biological aging lasts over time,
The yeast flower weakens and that chamomile undergoes a slight oxidative process, having very characteristic aromas.
so WINE ALCOHOL is not added and due to the high concentration of sugar, the yeasts, while fermenting,
Die intoxicated by the large amount of ALCOHOL that contains the WINE they produce, leaving a part of the grape sugar unfermented.
These wines, which are Naturally Sweet, achieve their high alcohol content due to the collection of frozen grapes,
which causes the resulting must to have a very high amount of sugar when pressing the grapes.
And they have the process similar to naturally sweet wines.
This harvest is late, in order to get the grapes in winter to the freezing point that the winemaker wishes.
They have a high saturation of carbonic gas (bubbles) but that has been added after fermenting,
unlike the CAVA that its bubble comes from the second fermentation in the bottle,
these SPARKLING WINE must indicate on their label that the carbonic they contain has been added.
Wines without alcohol or with a small amount of it, are normal wines that through a filtering system with a special membranes, at low temperature.
These systems mean that by evaporation we can capture the water and the aromas of the wine separated from the alcohol,
and after removing the alcohol we can recompose the wine and enjoy a 0,0 drink.
The Mistela is a very typical Spanish drink and is made with fresh must to which wine alcohol is added to make the mixture stable.
Wine Based Products
This type of product is mainly based on quality wines, which are given a characteristic aroma and flavor through maceration and the addition of botanicals.
Vermouth is a wine flavored with different herbs and spices, which is topped with quality wine alcohol.
The Vermouth graduation can vary between 16 and 22 degrees.
The Orange Wine is an oenological gem that can only be made in the Huelva County Designation of Origin.
This product is very special due to its long aging and the maceration of the wine topped with previously dried bitter orange peels.
This product takes more than 5 years to prepare and its quality is recognized worldwide.
Traditional wine terms in spain
Now we are going to describe those terms that are traditionally used in some wines with a lot of tradition in spain,
and that in themselves, are a special and unrepeatable type of wine.
is kept in barrels where they lose the veil of flower and go on to have an oxidative aging.
this aging time can be done alone in oak or combined with a stay in the bottle.
These wines are only produced in several regions of Spain, such as Cantabria, Norte de Burgos and especially in the Basque Country within the three Basque denominations:
High acidity wine with a touch of bitterness and some “needle” or slight residual bubble from fermentation.
These types of wines are only found in liqueur wines and overripe grape wines, when ancestral types of elaboration are used to create the wines.
This wine is created by “sweetening” a fortified oxidative aging wine, Oloroso type, so that the wine has a sweet and friendly mouth,
with a marked structure that contributes the Oloroso and the character of Pedro Ximenez sweet wine.
Criaderas and soleras
This system is typical of Andalusian wines of the generous type.
By this system we try to achieve a Homogenization of the wines over time and one of the reasons why most of the wines of this type do not have a vintage.
It is based on barrels superimposed one on top of the other so that the upper barrels contain the youngest wine and as we lower the level the wine is older,
reaching the last barrel, called Solera where the wine is Homogenized and we always have a wine of similar qualities.
These soleras can be more than one hundred years old.
These Wines can only have a designation of origin, and must be aged in Oak Barrels with a maximum capacity of 330 liters for 6 months.
Type of oxidative aging wine, typical of the Rueda area. where Palomino Fino and Verdejo wines are fermented,
they are left to rest in special glass bottles called mamajuanas, which are left in the open for a few months to go to rest in Barrels for a few years,
giving rise to a generous wine of oxidative aging of a beautiful color Golden.
Fortified wine that is made in Sherry, Montilla Moriles, Huelva (Condado Pálido) and other small regions,
although the word Fino can only be used in Sherry and Montilla. Fine wine can be made with the Palomino or Pedro Ximénez varieties.
The method of production is carried out with the total fermentation of the varieties, once it is finished, wine alcohol is added until reaching a graduation of 15º.
In order to favor the creation of the yeast veil that will extract all the sugar from the wine and protect the wine from oxidation.
This process lasts at least 2 years and the soleras and criaderas system is used.
A reference wine from the Alicante region, a strange and different wine that is considered an enological gem.
Once fermented, with a minimum alcoholic strength of 16º, the wine is introduced into a system of soleras and criaderas where it remains for at least 10 years.
Some of the soleras are from 1892.
Although the term tear is used for wines that are not sweet, because they are made with the must that comes out of the grapes without using mechanical pressing,
it can only be used in sweet wines. It is a sweet Tear wine that is made with the must of overripe grapes that have not been pressed.
It is a wine made mainly in the DO Málaga.
It is a red, white or rosé wine that has had a minimum stay of 18 months of aging in an oak wood container with a maximum capacity of 600 liters,
this aging time can be done alone in oak or combined with a stay in the bottle.
Oxidative aging wine, when the Palomino or Pedro Ximénez wine finishes fermentation,
depending on its structure and qualities, the winemakers add alcohol up to the graduation of 17 degrees so that
the flower veil does not appear and therefore the aging of the same is oxidative and produces a wine of interesting aroma and power different from the fine ones.
The graduation that is reached is 18 degrees of alcohol. The varieties ferment separately and once stabilized by the header,
they are mixed and placed in oak barrels of about 500 liters of capacity so that they have an oxidative aging for at least 5 years.
This term is used for Fine wines made outside the DO Jerez or DO Montilla, since they have the protection of the name.
The clear example are the wines of the county of Huelva in which the Fino-style biological aging wines are called Condado Pálido,
an example of quality and elegance is these wines are made by Bodegas Sauci with its Espinapura wine.
When you make a still wine and then go on to have a Biological Aging process, it must have a fine and elegant structure,
and if this type of wine is a little coarser it is destined for oxidative aging of the Oloroso type.
There are times that the wines that Sobretablas, those that are added to the most superior criaderas,
may have unique and different characteristics that although they could be used for fine wine,
oxidative aging is applied in barrel because they are wines that are made from man.
The raya is a fortified wine that has a Biological Aging but whose degree of Alcohol is acquired naturally without adding any type of alcohol.
Term used in DO Valencia for wines made with grapes harvested in the first 10 days of the harvest period.
A Rancio wine is one that has a very long oxidative aging and that due to its high alcohol content can have very special nuances and not at all pejorative.
If you want to know more about stale wines, you can read the article on Stale Wines.
These wines can only have a designation of origin, and must have a stay in oak barrels with a maximum capacity of 330 liters for 12 months in reds and 6 in whites and rosés.
Going to the market takes 36 months for red wines and 24 months for white and rosé wines.
This type of wine can also be a sparkling wine and to be able to use the term reserve it must have a minimum aging of 15 months from the tirage to the disgorgement.
Wine made in the Madrid Wines Designation of Origin, and are made by leaving the skins and lees in contact with the wine in
the same tank for a minimum of 90 days, to proceed to bottle the wine directly from that tank, without racking.
You can learn more in the article on Wines Sobremadre.
Term used in various denominations of Origin to determine the wines that are made with the preferred varieties of the
DO and with organoleptic characteristics of the highest quality. Many times they are Author or Limited Edition wines.
This type of wine is made in the Malaga denomination of origin and they are sweet wines that are made with the Pedro Ximénez variety.
Once fermented, with naturally acquired alcoholic degrees, it is transferred to barrels of more than 500 liters of capacity
so that it has an oxidative aging that must last at least 5 years, in some cases it can exceed 40 or 50 years of aging.
The master wine is a natural sweet wine to which an amount of Alcohol is added directly to the must so
that it undergoes a slow fermentation and also leaves a large amount of residual sugar. Very peculiar wines that are only produced in the DO Málaga.
Term used in Utiel-Requena for wines made with grapes harvested in the first 10 days of the harvest period.
These types of wine must be aged for 36 months with a clearly oxidative character due to the action of light, oxygen, heat or all of these factors.
Within the La Palma designation of origin, in its northern area it is allowed to produce white,
rosé and red wines that mature in Canarian Pine (TEA) barrels that confers a characteristic aroma and aging.
Tea wines are usually made different types of white grapes such as Listán Blanco and Albillo. In the case of the red varieties,
the Negramoll is mainly used, a grape with a later maturity that provides acidity and some color.
Read more article….
- Green Energy Companies | Renewable Energy Companies | 2021
- Beer Calories | Beer Types | Beer Alcohol Percentage | Beer Law
- Top 11 Insurance Agencies | Auto Insurance | Travel Insurance
- Christmas Greetings | Xmas | Christmas Day | Santa Paws | 2020
- Types Of Meditation | Meditation definition | Vipassana | 2020
- Top 15 Tourism Attraction In India | Tourism Attraction Near Me
- 10 Best Health Apps | Best Fitness Tracker App | Android | 2020
- Top 20 Tourist Places In Jaipur | Visiting Place In Jaipur | 2020
- Top 10 Most Visited Cities In The World | Visited Cities | 2020
- Best Yoga App 2020 | Daily Yoga | Simply Yoga | 5 Minute Yoga
- Best Android Games | Top Android Games | Android Gaming Reddit
- Perfect First Date | Top 10 Best Date Ideas | Ideal First Date
- 2021 Land Rover Defender | New Land Rover Defender | In 2020
- Yoga For Beginners | Yoga Poses For Beginners | 2020
- Places To Visit In Jodhpur | Tourist Places In Jodhpur
- Everything About Kia Motors | Kia Motors India Careers – In Hindi
- Top 15 Unknown Facts About Rolls Royce Car – In Hindi